This hypothesis is built on and assumes that the hypothesis by Dr. Humphreys solves the question about an old cosmos and young Earth as per my page reviewing his book, Starlight and Time. What I wish to deal with are the missing (dark) matter, the red light shift, and a possible dating technique. Basically, this is building on Dr. Humphreys' work for a more complete picture because I love science and figuring things out. This is my best guess based on science and the evidence. Enjoy. Caution: If you have not read the other pages, this will make no sense to you. This page builds on the other pages.
As explained in Pop Goes The Bang, scientists have discovered that the back ground gravity in our cosmos is not coming from within our cosmos. Therefore, the missing (dark) matter, which accounts for 90% of the matter in our cosmos, could not possibly be inside our cosmos. It must be outside of our cosmos. That is just common sense science.
For this back ground gravity to be even throughout our cosmos, this matter must be evenly distributed around our cosmos in a massive ring of matter. What state must this matter be in; gas, solid, plasma, or liquid?
Gas would dissipated too quickly which would decrease the back ground gravity to a level low enough that everything would fly apart much more quickly. Our cosmos would probably already be gone or this matter would have already changed state. You see, that much gas would either dissipated quickly into space or be quickly pulled together into either a solid, plasma, or liquid. It could not last tens of billions of years as gas with that much matter and at the outer reaches of our cosmos.
With our cosmos quickly expanding, a solid would quickly break up into chunks. Gravity would cause these chunks to bunch up which would cause gravity strong spots and weak spots. The back ground gravity would not be evenly distributed in our cosmos. It couldn't be a solid.
Plasma is not fluid enough to expand as quickly as liquid and would tend to break up and bunch up just like a solid. Therefore, the missing matter can't be plasma for the same reasons that it can't be solid.
I believe that it must be liquid because liquid is fluid enough for quick expansion without breaking up and dense enough to not dissipated until it expands to the point to where the gravity at the surface is small enough that the liquid begins to vaporize into gas and then diffuse into space. I also believe that the liquid is water because of water's properties.
Water is very dense, very fluid with minimum viscosity, has very good cohesive properties, and is made up of two very basic elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The fluidity, viscosity, and cohesive properties of water mean that it is less likely to break up as it expands and more likely to remain as an intact ring surrounding our cosmos with an even density. The density would keep it from vaporizing too soon and keep the cosmos from flying apart longer. The relatively simple elements, hydrogen and oxygen, make it very probable.
The proof or disproof of this hypothesis comes in two ways. First, by scientific theoretical analysis which is using the principles of science to analysis the probability of the hypothesis. The second, is to simply see the edge of the universe and see what is there. I would expect to find one of two conditions depending on the state of this ring of water at the time when the light photons which are presently reaching Earth left the ring of water.
If the surface water had not started to vaporize yet, then the surface should show as being very reflective which could be confusing to astronomers until they realize that it is water. They would see twin but opposite galaxies because of the reflection from nearby galaxies. They may see galaxies crashing or splashing into the ring of water.
If the surface water has begun vaporizing, then the water vapor at the surface will scatter light the way fog scatters light from a car's headlights. We will see glows and halos from nearby galaxies. Galaxies may be disappearing into the "cloud" from the ring of water.
Time will tell. :-) Scientifically...it fits the picture.
I was surprised when I realized that the above Ring of Water Hypothesis also explains the mysterious red light shift which seems to violate fundamental principles of science. My Red Light Hypothesis also fits the picture of our cosmos.
If 90% of the mass in our cosmos is in a very dense ring of water evenly surrounding our cosmos, it will have a predictable gravitational effect on the galaxies in the cosmos. We will all be drawn towards this rind of water just like a meteor is drawn towards a planet. The closest galaxies will be moving fastest towards the ring of water and will be ACCELERATING FASTEST and, therefore, have the greatest red light shift. The further the galaxies are away from the ring of water or closer to the center of the cosmos, the slower they will be moving and they will be accelerating slower with less red light shift.
This is the exact picture we see in our cosmos. It fits better than OJ's glove. :-) Fun, huh? The ring of water is out there. Look for it.
As promised on the preceding page when reviewing Dr. Humphreys' book, I want to propose a potentially very accurate method to date the galaxies and Earth.
1. We can draw lines from the fastest moving galaxies to the slowest moving galaxies to determine the center of the cosmos and where the event horizon disappeared.
2. Next, we take the structure of our cosmos, rate of expansion, size of the cosmos, rates of acceleration, relative positions of the galaxies, different time accelerations, and any other relative factors to calculate (1)how long ago the event horizon collapsed, (2)when each galaxy passed through the event horizon, (3)time acceleration for each galaxy, and (4)the age of each galaxy. We should be able to get pretty close to the actual ages. More fun. :-) This is exciting stuff.
So, if this is going to keep expanding until everything flies apart, what will it be like? First, the surface water on the ring of water will begin to vaporize and decrease the density of the ring which will accelerate its rate of vaporization on an exponential basis. As a matter of fact, the entire process will happen on an exponential basis which basically means that the process will start out slowly, increase in rate of acceleration, and accelerate rapidly at the end.
The ring of water will reach a point to where its density will not be adequate to maintain the water in a liquid state. The remaining water will suddenly vaporize, dissipated into space, and the atoms and subatomic particles would rapidly fly apart. When 90% of this cosmos's mass disappears, the rest will very quickly fly apart starting at the outside and accelerating rapidly towards the center until there is not enough mass left to keep the remaining matter from flying apart. Then...POOF!!! The rest will instantly disintegrate.
What will we see? We wont see flashes of light as galaxies fly apart because even the light photons will fly apart. The galaxies will simply disappear like someone turning off a light. It will happen relatively fast and accelerate very rapidly. If you are alive, it will scare the heck out of you. How will you end? You will be standing here one minute, and then nothing. You wont feel anything because your nerves wont have time to transmit signals to your mind much less for the mind to process the signal. POOF!!!