This is a book review about a very interesting and ground breaking book, *Starlight and Time* by D. Russell Humphreys, PhD.d. Dr. Humphreys was awarded his PhD.D. in physics from Louisiana State University in 1972. When I saw him lecture and spoke with him in Albuquerque in 1994, Dr. Humphreys was working for Sandia National Laboratories in Nuclear Physics. At the time I saw him, his hypothesis was receiving favorable responses from the scientific community. This will only be a brief review of his work.

The most significant difference between a black hole and a white hole is that matter can only go into a black hole and can only come out of a white hole. They are exact opposites of each other. In the Big Bang theory, the matter originally collapsed into a black hole. As the outward expansion began, the black hole had to change into a white hole in an instant for the matter to escape out into space. The expanding matter was subject to the gravitational effects on time. For some reason, this was not included in the Big Bang Theory.

The event horizon of either a black or white hole is the point where the gravity of the black hole is strong enough to cause "light to bend back on itself and where time is massively distorted." (*Starlight and Time*, pg 23, Russell Humphreys, PhD) The diameter of an event horizon is determined by the amount of matter inside of it. It will shrink in size as matter passes through it and will continue to shrink until it eventually disappears.

We have known for a long time that as gravity increases, the passage of time decreases. Experiments here on Earth have confirmed this. The massive gravity of a black hole or white hole will effect time much more.

The closer you get to an event horizon, the slower time passes for you. Let's say that you and a friend were to do an experiment. He will remain on a space station with a large clock on the outside facing you and a huge telescope to watch you while you fly in a space ship towards an event horizon. On your space ship and facing your friend is a huge clock set at the same time as his and a huge telescope so you can watch him.

As you fly towards the event horizon, you will see his clock speed up while your clock appears to be running normally to you. Your friend will see your clock appear to slow down while his clock appears to run normally to him. The closer you get to the event horizon, the greater the difference in the passage of time will be.

You will reach a point where the hands on his clock will be moving so fast that you cannot see them and the hands on your clock will appear to be standing still to your friend. When you reach the event horizon, your friends galaxy will age billions of years in what seems like an hour to you. This is the key to Dr. Humphreys' entire hypothesis.

According to Dr. Humphreys', we know that our cosmos imploded into a black hole and we know that our cosmos exploded out of a white hole. As the first matter passed through the event horizon of the white hole, the event horizon began to collapse, accelerating the rate at which matter was passing through it.

As the first matter passed through the event horizon, time began to rapidly accelerate for it and time continued to accelerate for it as it got further from the event horizon. In relation to the matter still at the event horizon, the matter out side of the event horizon began to move away from the event horizon more quickly and its speed away from the event horizon appeared to continue accelerating until the matter at the event horizon also passed through the event horizon. When the matter that would be our universe reached the event horizon, the matter furthest from the event horizon would have aged billions of years permitting the cosmos to be older and permitting enough time for light to have traveled tens of billions of light years from those stars to our matter.

This interesting theory does not only permit for an old cosmos and a young Earth, but it requires that the entire cosmos cannot be the same age. This presents some interesting possibilities which I will explore in my hypothesis.

I found this to be a very interesting text and strongly recommend it for your reading. Dr. Humphreys also includes an extensive appendix with the proofs for his hypothesis. A definite must read.